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From a historically conscious worldview, defining anthropology is a necessarily ongoing venture, (116) and the definition of what constitutes a premoral value or disvalue must be in dialogue with anthropology.
On the first two accounts, were the woman in question to be harmed by or disvalue the unconsented-to-Nazi pregnancy more than the unconsented-to-Nazi sex, then unconsented-to pregnancy would be at least as severe a rights-infringement as unconsented-to sex.
The movement from feeling and apprehending distrust as a possible value to the judgment that distrust is an actual value or disvalue for his good and flourishing is effected in the same cognitive process.
The moral value or disvalue of an act depends upon the internal states of the agent, not upon the external consequences of the deed.
According to Korsgaard, all persons endorse the experience of pleasure (and the avoidance of pain) as a component of their good, and she claims further that all persons are thereby committed to the value of pleasure (and the disvalue of pain) even when experienced by a non-rational animal.
Value and disvalue are not human creations but are essential to life itself.
With only disvalue acknowledged to transcend the sovereign individual, Delsol concludes, Western man is now a creature of aversion and fear.
Precisely how this principle should be formulated is an issue that I cannot explore here, but it is clear enough that it would have to be something to this effect: the act of doing or threatening to do violence to other human beings has some sort of ethical disvalue that is intrinsic to (that is, inseparable from) the act itself.
For Roman Catholics and the Eastern Orthodox, as for Buddhists and Hindus, pain medication that severely dulls a patient's sensibilities may hinder her from preparing spiritually for death--a disvalue that, if not absolutely to be avoided, at least ought to be weighed.
Leonard Peikoff defines punishment as "a disvalue inflicted in payment for vice or fault; it is a negative such as condemnation, the withholding of friendship or even outright ostracism, or the loss of money or prerogative, including (in criminal cases) the loss of freedom or of life itself.
8) An agent-neutral theory might claim that such killings are of infinite disvalue.
11) Hence Kenneth Himes has characterized social sin as "the disvalue .