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The results of linkage analysis on 368 dizygotic twin pairs with genome-scan data are shown in Fig.
If a significant genetic correlation exists between smoking and alcohol dependence, smoking in one twin should correlate more highly in monozy-gotic than in dizygotic pairs, with alcohol dependence experienced by the co-twin.
In the dizygotic twin pairs, 16% were concordant for GERD, a significantly lower percentage.
Researchers have proposed, for example, that double ovulations, which are more frequently found among mothers of dizygotic twins, expose the ovarian epithelium to more trauma and repair, providing an opportunity for cellular mutation.
Monozygotic twins have higher concordance rate for Rheumatic fever than dizygotic twins suggesting a genetic factor.
However, if one monozygotic twin had insomnia, their twin was more likely to have insomnia than if they were dizygotic twins," he said.
The results showed no difference in concordance rates for PD in monozygotic and dizygotic twins 60 or more years of age.
Interestingly, twin pregnancies may present with one or two placentas, and although dizygotic twins must have two placentas, monozygotic twins can be either mono- or bichorionic.
A survey of 1,018 dizygotic and 922 monozygotic twin pairs in an English national adult twin registry showed that 28% of monozygotic twin pairs shared symptoms of GERD (defined as heartburn or acid regurgitation at least once weekly for the past year).
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) was reported by 117 pairs of monozygotic twins and 164 pairs of dizygotic twins on questionnaires completed by 6,060 twin pairs living in Virginia.
Sometimes both signs can be seen in the same pregnancy: A woman may be carrying triplets as monochorionic-diamniotic twins and a dizygotic singleton.
On the other hand, the incidence of dizygotic twin pregnancy is considerably influenced by race, heredity, maternal age, parity and specially drugs affecting reproduction, thus giving rise to different frequency throughout the world.