dna


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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
DNA 17, Institute for Nursing Diversity--505-471-3324.
The investigators say that it will take additional sequencing of Neandertal DNA to determine whether that species interbred with Stone Age people.
Through the biotechnology program at Massachusetts Bay Community College, Jackson, who serves as department chair of science and director of the biotechnology and DNA forensics programs, created the world's first forensics DNA science degree program.
The sensitivity of MethylScreen assays enables Orion's scientists to measure unique qualities of epigenetic DNA that are indicative of disease progression.
Epigenetic information promises to serve as an important adjunct to DNA sequence in the analysis of biologic response to environmental exposures.
From these samples, they isolated the dog's DNA. By comparing the DNA data, the team is learning how each dog breed is related to the others.
Strands of DNA in the cell nucleus are millions of times longer than those in the mitochondrion, so the project may take a couple of years.
Identification of Bartonella species was conducted by using real-time multiplex PCR with species-specific fluorescent probes (Taqman, Appled Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA) in conjunction with oligonucleotides 321s 5'-AGA TGA TGA TCC CAA GCC TTC TGG CG-3' and 421 as 5'-GGA TRA AYY RGW AAA CCT TYM YCG G-3' as forward and reverse primers (Integrated DNA Technologies, Coralville, IA, USA), respectively.
IGENITY Sample Archive Preserves tissue samples for future DNA testing.
Manning: When you attempt to detect organisms by PCR, is it true that you can't use a cotton swab because dead bacterial DNA might be present on the swab?
"We are looking for broader applications for mitochondrial DNA," he adds.
The cost of converting DNA sequences to music is negligible; programs to do the job, such as ProteinMusic, already exist.