For the buffer pipeline room, the annual work duration and the average dose rate
were estimated to be 70 manhours and 0.03 mSv/h, respectively, before optimization, in the absence of detailed maintenance information.
VMAT can provide superior target volume coverage and conformity, with decreased dose to organs at risk for abdominal tumors.[sup], A dosimetric comparison between VMAT and IMRT for cervical cancer demonstrated that VMAT reduced treatment time and delivered MUs.[sup], However, VMAT can only be implemented using the new generation linacs such as the Varian RapidArc [sup][R] and Elekta Synergy [sup][R], because the requirement for variable dose rate
complicates the control hardware and software of the linacs and prevents most existing linacs from delivering VMAT.
Where D = dose rate
(mSv/min), T = duration of exposure (minute ), P = probacent and Q [sub]REISCD = mortality probability of REISCD.
This study addresses a concern voiced by clinicians that radiation may cause increased complications [4-7], and the principal goal was to isolate effects of radiation dose rates
on polyurethane in a controlled aqueous environment.
To reduce the dose rate
by half, the half value layer (HVL) is used  and to reduce it to the tenth part, the tenth value layer (TVL) was used.
Since the dose rate
is linearly related to activity of the radioactive seeds, in the TLD measurement and MC simulation, only 0.4 mCi [sup]125 I seeds were employed in this study.
The dose rate
variation during 1 year is presented in Figure 4.
These are selective pesticides and suggested to be used in recommended dose rates
against their target pests.
From Table 5, it can be seen that the dose rate
at contact is 1.02 mSv/h and at 1 m away from pipe is 0.45 mSv/h.
3), and the total dose rate
does not exceed 2.42 [mu]Gy [h.sup.-1].
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The authors used in their analyses the doubly weighted (via radiation and tissue weighting factors) hypothetical effective dose rate
and effective dose related to total-body irradiation from sources outside the body.