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As reviewed by Johnson, Mead, and coauthors (2013), numerous studies have shown that flushing a contaminated toilet will produce droplet and droplet nuclei bioaerosols that can contaminate surfaces and expose persons by contact or air currents.
Dispersion of exhaled droplet nuclei in a two-bed hospital ward with three different ventilation systems Indoor Air, vol 16, nr.
6 droplet nuclei are inhaled per minute by the target person, which is two times as much as in the first case.
Rising trend of MDR tuberculosis ease is spread by droplet nuclei in most of the cases.
Droplet nuclei are tiny and may remain in the air for prolonged periods, ready to be inhaled.
Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to children usually occurs when the child inhales droplet nuclei in the 1-5 micron size range that have been expelled into the air by a coughing or sneezing adult with infectious pulmonary tuberculosis.
The mode of transmission of mycobacterium bovis, the most common form of tuberculosis, is through the inhalation of droplet nuclei that are secreted and made airborne when an infected individual sneezes, coughs or speaks.
Anyone in other settings (which should be identified by the facility's risk assessment protocols) in which administrative and engineering controls are not likely to protect health care workers from inhaling infectious airborne droplet nuclei should also use respiratory protection.
Put simply, when people with TB cough, they produce tiny droplet nuclei that contain bacteria and can remain suspended in the air for prolonged periods of time.
For instance, human microenvironment, where the initial release of droplets by a susceptible index or the final capture of droplets or droplet nuclei by a target person occurs, can influence the interpersonal transport of human expiratory pathogen-carrying droplets, which constitutes a prerequisite for the transmission of pathogens as well as the transmission of respiratory diseases.
A crucial question is whether the increased frequency of common cold in crowded places is due to direct contact (or via surfaces), rather than via droplets or droplet nuclei.