DNA

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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
Bolton, "6-Thioguanine alters the structure and stability of duplex DNA and inhibits quadruplex DNA formation," Nucleic Acids Research, vol.
Burrows, "G-quadruplex folds of the human telomere sequence alter the site reactivity and reaction pathway of guanine oxidation compared to duplex DNA," Chemical Research in Toxicology, vol.
Water depletion is known to stabilize a GQ (and destabilize duplex DNAs) [29, 30].
While p[y.sup.8]A decreased the stability of duplex DNAs, it markedly elevated the thermal stability of the tetramolecular structures, assumingly, due to a prevalent glycosidic syn conformation [43, 45].
We have reformulated the definition described for duplex DNAs to be suitable for GQs as well: two or more lesions within a four-stranded, two- or three-tetrad core GQ unit consisting of up to 21 nucleotides in the core.
This indicates that poly A*T base pairing in duplex DNA is affected by the presence of 3 in Sequence 1, but not in Sequence 2, suggesting a sequence dependent effect on duplex structure by the presence of a single 3.
In duplex DNA, the presence of 3 causes the characteristic poly A*T shoulder to be lost in the CD spectra of 1D, but maintained in 2D.If 3 affects base-pairing interactions in both the 5 and 3 directions, it is expected that both duplex constructs of Sequences 1 and 2 containing 3 would lose the poly A*T shoulder in the CD spectra.
Differential scanning calorimetry of C3'-thymidinyl radical derived single strand-break products of the model replication fork was performed to thermodynamically characterize the effects of OvHgs and phosphates on the core duplex DNA as indicated in Table 3.
de los Santos, "Structure and stability of duplex DNA containing (5'S)-5', 8-cyclo-2'-deoxyadenosine: an oxidatively generated lesion repaired by NER," Chemical Research in Toxicology, vol.
Ren et al., "Experimental measurement of aromatic stacking affinities in the context of duplex DNA," Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol.