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The think tank said at least 80 countries practiced earmarking for health.
Aside from questions about accountability and corruption, there is the question of the extent to which earmarking drives up the deficit.
Anti-earmark advocates also assert that earmarking continues on back-channels, through letters and phone calls to the agencies--"letter-marking," or "phone-marking." Interests certainly are lobbying the executive branch, but that in itself suggests diminished influence by Congress.
concerns that have been expressed about earmarking. Because the Bush
Pork-barrel spending has been around as long as Congress itself, but over the last ten years or so the practice of earmarking has skyrocketed to a truly unprecedented level.
Although he lets its advocates make their case, often in their own words, Savage thinks academic earmarking is a bad practice.
The earmarking of pensions is also being developed, where the courts outside Scotland have the power to make an earmarked periodic payment award or an earmarked lump sum award or a combination of the two.
Salmon, who supports devolution of spending authority to the states, and GOP sophomore Mark Neumann, who says of earmarking, "Don't do it, but if you do, just be fair to Wisconsin." According to The Washington Post, of the 84 House lawmakers who were elected with 55 percent of the vote or less and who supported the balanced budget in May, half also voted for the $12 billion in additional transportation spending that nearly derailed the plan.
Zelizer's core concept is "earmarking" - the idea that money has "no single uniform, generalized meaning," but specific forms and uses tied to particular settings.
It further predicts that the Republican takeover of the House and Senate after the 1994 congressional elections could lead to a resurgence of earmarking, in a different form, as long as the Democrats control the White House.
AAAS notes, for example, that FY '88 was a record year for pork barrel funding (SN: 4/18/87, p.246), with Congress earmarking money for specific construction projects and, for the first time, for specific research programs as well -- all without agency review.
President Bush's vow during his State of the Union speech to fight out-of-control congressional "earmarking" provoked little reaction from pundits of polls this week.