When Aristotle says that the chain of efficient causes
needs a cause in order to avoid an infinite regress, he is not saying that such a series needs an efficient first cause.
the phantasm is not the efficient cause
of the agent intellect's act).
In other words, leaders' perceptions, including their risk aversion or risk acceptance, are the efficient causes
for international behavior; systems and polarity are formal causes.
Goal certainly seems to have final cause about it, and motive accords with the movement aspect of efficient cause
(I mean that which moves the maker to set things in motion, that which propels one into action).
enhances analogy, discontinuity, obsolesces isolated figures, connection, efficient cause
, retrieves ground patterns, irrationality, formal cause, and, if distorted, reverses into determinism.
The soul is also the final, formal, and efficient cause
of a living body (De Anima 415b8-11).
Starting with 1695, Leibniz holds that everything in the world can be explained not only by efficient causes
but by final causes as well.
22) For when the same effect can be produced by any of several efficient causes
or agents, the relation is no longer reciprocal, since no single cause can be inferred from the effect.
53) This will include changes that have efficient causes
that are external to the subject of change as well as ones that have internal ones like nutrition and growth since the natural motions of simple bodies have external efficient causes
as well as natures as their principles, i.
For example, Cook's argument that Europe's intellectuals and religious leaders hampered scientific development by insisting on causal knowledge rather than precise description of nature, which validated empiricism, does not address the importance of changing definitions of causation and attention to efficient causes
within neo-Aristotelian philosophy during the period.
He states, 'The doctrine of the philosophy of organism is that, however far the sphere of efficient causes
be pushed in the determination of components of a concrescence--its data, its emotions, its appreciations, its purposes and its phases of subjective aim--beyond the determination of these components, there always remains the final reaction of the self-creative unity of the universe' (p.
It seems to us that Borges erected, whether or not consciously, one of the most extraordinary bridges ever to be built between science and literature, joining together final and efficient causes
(expressed in terms of natural laws).