1) had held before that forms are some sort of internal efficient causes
Goal certainly seems to have final cause about it, and motive accords with the movement aspect of efficient cause
(I mean that which moves the maker to set things in motion, that which propels one into action).
enhances analogy, discontinuity, obsolesces isolated figures, connection, efficient cause
, retrieves ground patterns, irrationality, formal cause, and, if distorted, reverses into determinism.
As he explains, the necessary relation between efficient causes
and their effects may not obtain if the conditions peculiar to their natures are not met.
In the light of the following passage, however, Gill suggests that it is an agent or an efficient cause
that ultimately imposes a goal-directedness or an intrinsic direction upon a change by transmitting a form to the patient:
Otteson also offers an informative discussion of Smith's appeal to both final causes, which reflect utility and general happiness, and efficient causes
, which are manifest in individuals pursuing their own interests (pp.
67) Hence, the final causes of preservation, procreation, and order are all supported by instinctive efficient causes
This, however, cannot go on to infinity, says Aquinas, "because in all efficient causes
following in order, the first is the cause of the intermediate cause," which, being either one or several, is the cause of the ultimate effect.
In following the Fathers, Greek, Latin, and English, Dr McAdoo, like his co-author, emphasizes the primary presence of the Mystery of sacrifice, or the Heavenly offering in the liturgical memorial or covenant, more than he emphasizes the secondary presence of the same Mystery in those sacramental elements which were for St Thomas (as for St Augustine), the efficient causes
of the sacrifice: Thus Vonier: "the Eucharistic sacrifice is entirely subsumed under the concept of the Eucharistic sacrament -- nay, more, the Eucharist is said by Thomas to have its main expression and celebration in the consecration, which consecration, again, according to him is the direct and complete sacramental representation of Christ's passion and as such is sacrifice".
of psychological events refer to causal connections among such underlying events as neural firings, internal reflexes, and mental representations.
3 with a statement of empirical fact: "In the world of sense we find there is an order of efficient causes
Where scientific explanation for Aristotle's medieval followers emphasized formal and final causality and typically invoked incorporeal agents as explanatory hypotheses, the new science reverted to and revised the creed of the ancient atomists, who held that every natural phenomenon could be explained fully in terms of efficient causes
and contact action between particles of matter.