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Even though all subjects processed the first advertisement more effortfully, and females exhibited only a small decline in processing for the second advertisement, males only showed systematic processing for the second advertisement when it matched their values (help-self, m = 3.93).
As Draguns (1996) suggested, the worldviews of deprivileged people are "absorbed in the process of socialization rather than actively taught and effortfully acquired" (p.
These instruments must permit the eventual study of connections between capacities that teachers can intentionally and effortfully learn to develop--wherever they occur--and the impacts of their efforts on the learning and development of students.
For instance, when viewing a partly occluded object, such as an animal behind a tree, it seems that we can attend to that object as a unit, without having to move the eyes effortfully towards each visible fragment of the animal in turn.
Given adequate ability, highly motivated individuals process information effortfully (ELM) or systematically (HSM), whereas individuals with low motivation rely on cognitive shortcuts referred to as peripheral cues (ELM) or heuristics (HSM).
Instead, operators must monitor them serially and effortfully, having to recall what the normal position or value of each is and then to determine whether the control or instrument is in that state.