Even though all subjects processed the first advertisement more effortfully
, and females exhibited only a small decline in processing for the second advertisement, males only showed systematic processing for the second advertisement when it matched their values (help-self, m = 3.
As Draguns (1996) suggested, the worldviews of deprivileged people are "absorbed in the process of socialization rather than actively taught and effortfully
These instruments must permit the eventual study of connections between capacities that teachers can intentionally and effortfully
learn to develop--wherever they occur--and the impacts of their efforts on the learning and development of students.
For instance, when viewing a partly occluded object, such as an animal behind a tree, it seems that we can attend to that object as a unit, without having to move the eyes effortfully
towards each visible fragment of the animal in turn.
High involvement individuals process information effortfully
(ELM) or systematically (HSM), whereas individuals with low involvement rely on cognitive shortcuts referred to as peripheral cues (ELM) or heuristics (HSM).