fault

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Fault

Neglect of care; an act to which blame or censure is attached. Fault implies any Negligence, error, or defect of judgment.

Fault has been held to embrace a refusal to perform an action that one is legally obligated to do, such as the failure to make a payment when due.

West's Encyclopedia of American Law, edition 2. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

fault

one of the central concepts in the law of tort or delict. A legal system can look at harmful conduct in different ways. It can focus on the interest infringed and declare it a tort to occupy another's property, for example. However, this produces results that certainly cause moral problems and thus eventually cause legal problems. So where a person inadvertently infringes another's interest, the law has to decide whether to penalize or not. Generally, the more advanced a legal system, the more it is likely to take this into account. Thus, Roman law achieved this result in the early years of the first millennium and English law began to do so towards the end of the second. In the 19th century especially, the proposition began to be put in reverse, it being said that there would be no liability without fault, fault being necessary but not necessarily sufficient to establish liability. Fault had the benefit of comprising most existing categories of case where the plaintiff deliberately harmed the defendant, but it also allowed cases where the defendant had been careless to be included. Fault became associated with intentional wrongdoing or recklessness, which was its equivalent, and also with certain instances of carelessness.

In civilian systems, fault in this sense of exhibiting less than reasonable care would be sufficient to establish a prima facie case but would be subject to limitation in the scope of liability in the basis of the notion of remoteness. English law (and ironically) Scots law took a different course with the decision in Donoghue v. Stevenson 1932 SC (HL) 31, which established that a lack of care would constitute fault but only where there was a pre-existing duty of care. This duty could be found in precedent or arise from the relationship between the parties. Fault became much more a technical concept after that, and its moral aspect diminished. An objective approach to some aspects of the investigation into liability was a further blow to any moral approach. Fault in the later part of the 20th century fell out of favour as a mechanism for achieving many of the things that tort or delict did. Exhortation of citizens is better done through penalties inflicted through an efficient criminal justice system backed by an organized police force. The existence of an insurance industry can make it economically efficient to redirect liability in the direction of the person who is most likely to be able to acquire insurance cover at lowest cost, thus ensuring that injured persons seeking compensation are actually compensated without recourse to general taxation or charity. Statutory strict liability is beginning to appear in the interstices of the law so that fault may become a safety net for cases outside strict liability.

Collins Dictionary of Law © W.J. Stewart, 2006
References in periodicals archive ?
Eddie Arrowsmith, NICEIC regional engineering manager responsible for Middle East operations, said: "A large number of the fires in the region can be traced back to electrical faults which puts thousands of lives at risk every day.
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The electrical fault triggered a power cut, making the mine cages unusable and the report added that those trapped are reported to be 2 km below the surface and 4 km from the mine entrance.
The Fire Service chief said: "From our initial inspections it would be deemed to have been an electrical fault that caused the fire."
Police said it was caused by an "electrical fault" and no injuries were reported.
They found the cause of the fire was an electrical fault in an item in the bedroom or in wiring.
Shaqlawa's Mayor, Dilawar Umar, told Aswat al-Iraq news agency that "the fire in the said headquarters took place due to an electrical fault."
Most probably it was due to an electrical fault," Qader Hama-Jan, the head of local security operations, said.
But just ten days later the electrical fault led to a catastrophic leak of helium - which is used to cool the machine's powerful magnets - causing a complete shut-down.
No smoke was seen in the cockpit until 14 minutes after the electrical fault occurred, added the report.
"All indications say it wasn't an electrical fault, but that hasn't been confirmed and we'd hate to speculate," an official said.

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