For the configurations with trapezoidal back electromotive forces
, the three back electromotive forces
are estimated from the following three equations:
Figure 4 is a plot of the effective value of the magnetic field as against the effective value of the electromotive force
Each phase of motor is demonstrated by armature resistances (Ra.Rb.Rc), inductances (La.Lb.Lc) and counter electromotive forces
I will refer to E as the electric field but use Maxwell's term "electromotive force
" for [E.sub.v], the force on a moving unit electric charge.
Case 4 (when periodic electromotive force
is applied, i.e., E(t) = [E.sub.0] sin [omega]t).
Small power AC machine adopts a single-layer chain winding, and TPMLWG has the same induction electromotive force
with permanent magnet rotary generator whose rated power is X kW and rated speed is [n.sub.1N] working at low speed [n.sub.1] = [n.sub.1N]/X.
These electromotive forces
represent the addition of the electromotive forces
induced by the dq flux linkage components of the stator and the electromotive force
induced by the flux linkages of the permanent magnets of the rotor ([[fi].sub.r]) in a PMSG.
From theoretical calculations it can be concluded that induced electromotive force
in the contour is very small.
With electromagnetic induction, a magnetic flux is induced between the power-transmitting and power-receiving coils, and operates based on electromotive force
. This method has been used in cordless phones, among other equipment.
A single cell has an electromotive force
of less than one volt and an output of only a few watts, so cells are connected sequentially in a stack to increase voltage and power output.
where [u.sub.A] represents the input voltage, [R.sub.A] is the electric resistance, [i.sub.A] is the armature current, e is the counter-electromotive force, L is the electric inductance, [K.sub.m] motor torque constant, [K.sub.e] ([K.sub.m] = [K.sub.e]) electromotive force
constant, [K.sub.d][[omega].sub.m] ([K.sub.d] = b) damping torque given by the loss of magnetic field and viscous friction in the motor's bearings, [M.sub.m] is the motor's torque, [M.sup.r.sub.r] is the resistant torque reduced in the axle of the motor, [I.sup.r] is the moment of inertia of the rotor and [i.sub.total] = [i.sub.reducer][i.sub.transmission].
tables for pure-element thermo couple combinations.