There are two ways to quantify elevational
patterns in species richness: alpha and gamma diversity studies (McCain, 2005).
gradient throughout the Caribbean side of Braulio Carrillo varies between lowland tropical rainforests (30 m) to tropical montane forests (2 906 m), representing one of the last protected elevation gradients still covered by continuous forests in Central America.
clines represent a "natural laboratory" within which we can better understand how such traits fluctuate in response to growing conditions.
The patterns and causes of elevational
2010) that fill gaps in the recorded distribution of the species, and increase the elevational
range to 300 to 2814 m (from 500-2600 m; Solari et al.
Skipper Richness (Hesperiidae) Along Elevational
Gradients in Brazilian Atlantic Forest.
The distribution of insects along elevational
Bird diversity along elevational
gradients in the Andes of Colombia: area and mass effects, Global Ecology and Biogeography 13(5): 451-458.
Joseph Barraclough (Mills) Ltd, re-cladding of part elevations, replacement window frame, removal of elevational
wall of amenities area and re-building, Works, Union Street, Heckmondwike.
Most of these species were recorded in just one or two locations, within a small elevational
More immediately, they will provide managers of more intensively managed lands outside the parks with reference information about elevational
distributions of bird species from more-pristine park ecosystems.
the proposed elevational
treatment (in other words, the wall