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121) White workers had more opportunity to exercise electoral power, but Hoffman contends that white workers who won office tended to be the most conservative, aligned themselves politically with elites, and eschewed working-class politics.
Some identify elites who appear to be modern but not democratic.
Furthermore, this new black nationalism ought to be seen as a pragmatic manifestation of black elite intellectual activity.
Alas, it is mistaken to conclude that direct democracy abolishes political elites.
He does this by showing the extent to which outsiders -- that is, those outside the city's honor elite -- were used to mediate power and establish the boundaries of authority in the city, providing its rulers with the sacrality they themselves lacked.
About the same proportion owed money to British creditors, preferring to extend credit to fellow elites as an important sideline to planting and become debtors to those they knew and trusted.
The administrative elites autonomy, however, has always been vulnerable to one powerful social group: the rural bourgeoisie.
The Cuzco elites felt themselves to be white, despite the fact that people from the coastal capital, Lima, saw them as dark-skinned.
Kirchner loses among the elites of his own nation - who are much more likely to view Chile's Lagos favorably.
The book does not draw on recent monographs on comparable black elites in other cities or those on Washington's white social elite; nor does it utilize a social science social class perspective.
We might conclude that only in Belgium did the new entrepreneurial classes and capitalist elites function primarily as in England, and such a conclusion may in turn be a product largely of our ignorance of Belgian history.
In this richly researched, detailed, and statistically documented investigation of Black Country elites Trainor considers such factors as the identity, aims, recruitment, background, internal cohesion, and the external interactions of local elites.