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The following LOEs were studied: bulk metal analysis, AVS-SEM assays, elutriate tests, ecotoxicity assays and benthic community assessment.
Sediment samplings took place on the following dates: a) benthic community, December 2008, b) bulk metal analysis and AVS-SEM assays, October 2008, c) elutriate tests, September 2008, d) ecotoxicity assays, May 2008.
Sampling of sediments for bulk metal analysis, AVS-SEM assays, elutriate tests and ecotoxicity assays were conducted in partnership with Golder Associates Brasil, located in Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais), using a 4.
Elutriate tests were conducted by Votorantim Metais (Tres Marias/Minas Gerais) and Golder Associates Brasil.
Elutriate tests were conducted according to the methodology described in Plumb (1981).
The elutriate was filtered in filter paper (1 mm) to separate the colloids from the solution, and then divided into 2 aliquots.
Elutriate test results were compared to Brazilian legislation (CONAMA, 2005), considering protection to aquatic life (Class 2).
Elutriate results better than established criteria, according to CONAMA (2005), indicated improbable adverse effect; results exceeding criteria, for any parameter, indicated uncertain adverse effects because of the overly conservative nature described in methods.
The results of metal analysis (total and dissolved) in the elutriate are presented in Table 5 and were compared to CONAMA (2005) and reference sample (P1).
Elutriate Systems use a Bio Reactor, also known as a RAS (return activated sludge) system.
After consulting with Elutriate Systems about the optimum way to handle the winery wastewater, a simple solution was developed.
Glenn Wensloff heads up the firm Elutriate Systems, a company specializing in designing, installing, permitting, starting and operating wastewater systems for wineries.