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The biblical scholar William Tyndale, in preparing his 1530 translation of the Pentateuch, coined scapegoat as a calque of the Late Latin (Vulgate) caper emissarius 'emissary goat,' itself a calque of Hebrew 'azazel, the name of a desert demon which, etymologically, was understood as 'ez ozel 'goat that departs'--whence emissary goat, whence scapegoat, whence any person, place, or thing that bears the blame for others.
Scapegoat, as we have seen, is an example of a doublecalque, but it is also a catachresticalque insofar as Late Latin caper emissarius, of which scapegoat is Tyndale's English translation, is, in fact, a mistranslation of the Hebrew proper name 'azazel.