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Orme CDL, Davies RG, Burgess M, Eigenbrod F, Pickup N, Olson VA, Webster AJ, Ding T-S, Rasmussen PC, Ridgely RS, Stattersfield AJ, Bennett PM, Blackburn TM, Gaston KJ, Owens IPF (2005) Global hotspots of species richness are not congruent with endemism or threat.
This northwestern Iberian endemism, which is included in the IEAPCL, has its main distribution centre in Galician-Leonese mountains (Sierra del Teleno, Montes Aquilanos, Sierra de la Cabrera, Sierra Segundera and Pena Trevinca massif), where is very frequent.
This diversity is congruent with an area of endemism based on differentiation within a wide variety of vertebrate taxa.
When spreading data of Tachycixius species are analysed, it can be seen that most types of these species show local endemism by spreading in only one country at a rate of 68% (17/25) (Fig.
The tropical paradigm as well as the high diversity encountered in some groups of plants or animals within the humid forests are casting a shadow over the dry forests; there is comparatively little published when relating the actual endemism of dry forests to humid forests.
As for many isolated islands, the Juan Fernandez Archipelago is volcanic in origin, and possesses a high degree of endemism in reef fish species (Dyer & Westneat, 2010).
However, the species composition of the bromeliad tanks seems to be characterized by a high level of endemism, being considerably different from the fauna found in nearby environments (LOPEZ et al.
The taxonomic knowledge of this family is limited mainly because they are very rare in natural ecosystems, their endemism, small geographical distribution, scarcity of specimens in scientific collections (Miller 1972, Gonzalez & Fernandez-Yepez 1993, Lamas 1993), and also there are limited studies on the group.
Almost 80 per cent of Pakistan's endemic flowering plants are confined to the north and western mountains whereas, in the Himalayas Mountains, same pattern of endemism expecting the maximum number of endemic species at high elevations due to isolation mechanisms.
This area is protected by the Mexican government (Diario Oficial de la Federacion, 2009) due to the high level of endemism derived from unique edaphic, climatic, and hydrological conditions.