121) Aliens affected by orders promulgated under the act did not have recourse to the courts to object to the orders on the grounds that the determination was not made in accordance with due process of law, but could bring habeas corpus petitions to challenge their status as enemy aliens
Most of the enemy aliens
arrested on the East Coast were processed at the Ellis Island Reception Center, known typically as the gateway into America.
It is the half recognition of the prewar legal relationship, and in an action against an enemy alien
, it is the full recognition because the enemy alien
is permitted to defend himself and to appeal a judgment against him.
Strictly speaking, the "internment" label itself applied only to the detention of enemy aliens
18) Under qualified conditions, resident enemy aliens
have been provided access to our courts, (19) but "the nonresident enemy alien
, especially one who has remained in the service of the enemy, does not have even this qualified access to our courts, for he neither has comparable claims upon our institutions nor could his use of them fail to be helpful to the enemy.
Another person charged with treason for his part in the saboteurs' conspiracy, Helmut Leiner, was acquitted, but then interned as an enemy alien
(Fisher 2003a, 82-83).
The Enemy Alien
Act was used frequently up through the Second World War, but as we no longer formally declare wars its importance has decreased considerably over the past fifty years.
This looked good on paper, but in reality the status of enemy alien
was every bit as difficult to define as that of Confederate citizen.
Yes," Lydia said, speaking of her father's internment as an enemy alien
and as if to explain the airy surroundings, "the enclosed camp in Canada haunted him his whole life.
Another person charged with treason for his part in the saboteurs' conspiracy, Helmut Leiner, was acquitted of treason but then interned as an enemy alien
But he was classed as an enemy alien
and no amount of protesting washed.
Exclusion meant that anyone classified as an enemy alien
had to get out.