Writing alone in the second book, Enemy Aliens
: Double Standards and Constitutional Freedoms in the War on Terrorism ("Enemy Aliens
"), Cole brings these criticisms up to date through the summer of 2003.
While it seems to have been the intent of the law's framers to confiscate only property owned by bona fide Northerners--that is, people who had established a domicile in a Northern state--it did not take a particularly great leap of imagination to suggest that a person's anti-Confederate attitude, rather than place of residence, might render the individual an enemy alien
Hobson, John Marshall and the Enemy Alien
, 9 Green Bag 2d 39 (2005) (reporting case of United States v.
In other words, my mother was wrongly classified as an enemy alien
terms of the Enemy Alien
Act presumed that nondangerous enemy aliens
The reliance on imports was brought into prominence by the introduction of legislation in 1914 that gave the government the power to pass any regulation necessary for "public safety, the defence of New Zealand, or the effective conduct of the military or naval operations of His Majesty during the present war." (4) In 1915, the regulations were extended to include the ability for the Public Trust to take over any running of any company which was 50% or more owned by "enemy aliens
According to the bill, the 'enemy alien
' is a militant whose identity is unascertainable as Pakistani in the locality where he has been arrested or in the locality where he claims to be residing whether by documentary or oral evidence.
The Bill defines "enemy alien
" as "a militant" whose identity "is unascertainable as a Pakistani, in the locality where he has been arrested or in the locality where he claims to be residing, whether by documentary or oral evidence; or who has been deprived of his citizenship by naturalisation".
The first presidential proclamation under the Enemy Alien
Act did not occur until the War of 1812, when President Madison ordered that alien enemies who resided within forty miles of tide water must report to local marshals for assigned residency or other measures.
Kallmann grew up in a Jewish home in Berlin during the Nazi era and was sent on a Kindertransport to England as a teenager just before the outbreak of war, only to be interned there as a German enemy alien
after war broke out.
Following Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor on the morning of December 7, 1941, Roosevelt issued Presidential Proclamations 2525, 2526, and 2527, which instantly certified Japanese, German, and Italian immigrants as "enemy aliens
." Like the controversial Enemy Alien
Act of 1798, the declarations technically pertained only to citizens not born in the United States.
In May 1940 Kallmann was arrested as an enemy alien
; in July he was sent to Canada, where he spent three years in internment camps.