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Joseph de Maistre and the Legacy of Enlightenment, edited by Carolina Armenteros and Richard A.
For Berlin, the Counter Enlightenment rejected the universalism of the Enlightenment, substituted pluralism, and originated among the German intelligentsia.
A COMPANION TO THE CATHOLIC ENLIGHTENMENT IN EUROPE.
Until recent decades, most students of Catholic history would have viewed the notion of a Catholic Enlightenment as a contradiction in terms.
A friend of Lessing and indebted to Christian Wolff, Mendelssohn drew on aspects of the German, Dutch, and English enlightenments, and in his writings we find the same practical impulses toward a reasonable, ethically oriented interpretation of the Bible as we found in Protestantism.
In brief, this is a deeply researched, well-written, and compelling account of the importance of religion in shaping European enlightenments.
Those who take the latter position do not want to supplement the Thomist tradition with doses of Enlightenment values.
Secondly, there are believers in Enlightenment-style rationality, that is, different varieties of liberals who sever reason from faith; and thirdly, there are the postmoderns who think that the Enlightenment was a very oppressive social experiment and that all versions of rationality are in some way related to theological or mythological presuppositions, although they do not accept that we can use our reason to judge between those competing theological presuppositions.
They set the stage for the broader British Enlightenment but also for the two other Enlightenments she considers more briefly, the French and the American.
As the Enlightenment flowered throughout Europe, Kant argued that he and his contemporaries did not live in an "enlightened age," but that they did live in "the age of enlightenment.
Like him, Himmelfarb contends that British Enlightenment actors were different from their counterparts across the Channel (though no less important) because they did not need to view themselves as a persecuted, rebellious minority.
But at least these attacks seemed to presuppose the Enlightenment as their object.