Some enteroendocrine cells
have long cytoplasmic protrusions thanks to which the secreted substances may be delivered directly to distant effector cells or blood vessels .
. Enteroendocrine cells
(EECs) are occasionally located within the crypt and play a vital role in gut physiology and may contribute to the IESC niche microenvironment [46, 47].
are alternatively known as neuroendocrine cells and APUD cells because they were thought to originate from the neural crest.
The lower crypt compartment consists of pluripotent stem cells residing at the bottom of the crypt, recently identified by the stem cell marker Lgr5 and proliferating transit amplifying cells that differentiate into mature cell lineages (Absorptive, goblet and enteroendocrine cells
) during migration toward the villus compartment.
: It has been accepted that for the first time, enterochromaffin cells appear at the 11th week of development (43, 44).
The mechanisms of the considerable improvement in psoriasis activity in the patients who underwent gastric bypass surgery, especially the Roux-en-Y procedure, appeared to be related to the diversion of nutrients in the distal small intestine, where enteroendocrine cells
Evidence indicates that the pathophysiology of IBS is related to a variety of cells in the intestine including epithelial cells, enteroendocrine cells
, neuronal cells, and immune cells.
Three differentiated epithelial lineages mediate colonic function: the colonocytes, or absorptive enterocytes, the mucus-secreting goblet cells, and the less abundant enteroendocrine cells
. Each crypt unit is maintained by multipotent stem cells (SCs), located at the bottom of the crypt.
Here, a variety of enteroendocrine cells
secrete numerous peptide hormones that play important roles in glucose homeostasis and energy metabolism.
Several types of enteroendocrine cells
are also observed in the mucosa of the caeca and intestine, similar to those observed in the stomach and intestine of Perca fluviatilis, Ameilerus nebulosus (Noaillac-Depeyre & Gas, 1982) and Ancistrus multispinnis (Satora & Winnicki, 2000).
Hormones secreted by the enteroendocrine cells
of the small intestine in response to the presence of fat in the proximal duodenum stimulate contractions of the smooth muscle of the gallbladder.