Marinus regarded the invention and application of DDT as the most important single factor in controlling epidemic typhus
in war-torn Europe and the post-war period.
Epidemic typhus remains a threat in the rural highlands of South America, Africa, and Asia.
From the late 19th century until 1963, the annual mortality rate of epidemic typhus in the rural state of Mexico decreased steadily from 52.
was endemic to North Africa until the 1970s (4).
In Chile, the last outbreak of epidemic typhus
began in 1933 and continued through 1939 (2).
Her research interests are epidemic typhus
, its relapsing form (Brill-Zinsser disease), and the reservoir of this disease.
Nicolle's many accomplishments include the discovery that epidemic typhus
is transmitted by body lice (Pediculus humanis corporis), discovery of the phenomenon of inapparent infection, and possibly the first isolation of human influenza virus after experimental transmission.
Surveillance for epidemic typhus
was discontinued in the United States in the 1950s because the illness had not been reported in decades and prevalence of body lice infestation in this country has been low (1).
, caused by Rickettsia prowazekii, is characterized by headache, high fever, chills, rash, and, in serious cases, by stupor or lack of awareness of reality.
Arthropods are collected and PCR-screened for pathogens such as Bartonella, the epidemic typhus
rickettsia, and Borrelia recurrentis.
Rickettsia prowazekii is the causative agent of epidemic typhus
and also a potential bioterrorism agent.
A carrier of bubonic plague, epidemic typhus
, trench fever, ratbite fever, leptospirosis, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, salmonella poisoning, and many other infections, the rat is still a suspect around the world, destroying as much as one third the global food supply each year, killing domesticated animals, damaging buildings and furnishings (9).