Lim asked other PAS and Umno leaders who also believe his statement was equating
Islam to kleptocracy to 'identify themselves' so that Malaysians could evaluate their intellectual capacity and 'moral failing.'
In the equating
literature, a recurring concern is that equating
functions that utilize a single anchor to account for examinee groups' nonequivalence are biased when the groups are extremely different and/or when the anchor only weakly measures what the tests measure.
The most critical feature of a common-item nonequivalent groups equating
design is that the average score difference between the new and old groups can be accurately decomposed into a group ability difference and a form difficulty difference.