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3) Technological progress has made the problem of excludability less pervasive (see infra).
The excludability problem, though sometimes a challenge, can often be overcome.
It replaces the binary concept of excludability with the continuous one of exclusion cost, so that a children's playground, easily made excludable by building a fence and a employing a gatekeeper who sells entrance tickets, becomes a public good, nonexcluded, because letting rich children in and shutting poor ones out would involve too high [an] exclusion cost in terms of a bad social conscience.
Yet it was, and is, clear that, contrary to the Supreme Court's statement in Davis, "the greater power" of excludability that generally inheres in a property right does not "contain[] the lesser" power to exclude on the basis of viewpoint.
A spillover occurs, for example, when a firm's privately created knowledge becomes publicly available and the firm lacks any legal mechanism to enforce excludability.
Digital information goods undermine traditional economic assumptions of rivalry, excludability, and transparency.
Excludability is a function of both the technology and the legal system.
properly filing an Application for Waiver of Grounds of Excludability.
additional analysis of excludability, see ROBERT COOTER & THOMAS
Where private good attributes are present, such as excludability and non-joint consumption, quasi-market incentives may be employed in concert with command-and-control strategies to supply a public good.
Often, issues involving methods of accounting are those pertaining to timing--for example, whether an expenditure should be expensed or capitalized rather than issues of includability, excludability or deductibility.
Each researcher was sent an on-line questionnaire asking about their annual budgets by funding source, types of laboratory assistants, grant-based inputs such as equipment and cell lines, university resources, the respondent's bioscience discipline and current main study topic, the basicness and potential excludability of their approach to that topic, academic rank, and intensities of view on a range of professional scientific norms.