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Related to exenteration: orbital exenteration
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After the initial description of pelvic exenteration by Brunshwig in 1948, there has been much debate about the surgery despite the refinement of the technique, especially for urinary conduits.
Margin status had been proven in systemic reviews to be the most important factor for survival.[20],[26] Modern imaging does not accurately identify local extensions of microscopic disease and is inadequate for preoperative planning of the extent of resection.[20] Magrina and Stanhope [27] proposed the subclassification of the exenteration groups into Type I (supralevator), Type II (infralevator), and Type III (with vulvectomy), which has been helpful in facilitating an understanding of the extent of resection of the pelvic structures and the anatomical changes associated with each operation.
The possibility to perform an eyelid-sparing orbital exenteration and the surgical resection of the neoplasm with immediate reconstruction using a temporal muscle flap was valued; a function-sparing intervention was planned after the histopathological analysis and the confirmation of an aggressive and rapid course of the disease.
Dubenec, "Outcomes after en bloc iliac vessel excision and reconstruction during pelvic exenteration," Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, vol.
[15] Management of malignant tumours is still controversial and may require a more aggressive therapy including exenteration, en-bloc craniofacial orbitotomy with bone removal, radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
Observations on the urinary tract four to seven years after total pelvic exenteration and wet colostomy.
Median survival was 42 months in our series; in one extreme case that had two recurrences after RC and PD, she underwent major surgeries for local recurrences (pelvic exenteration and CRS and HIPEC).
An alternative definition that has not been widely accepted distinguishes MVTx only by the need for upper abdominal exenteration and not by the inclusion or exclusion of the stomach.
The surgical approach adopted was a pelvic exenteration with anterior resection of the abdominal rectum and navel, with pelvic lymphadenectomy and ureteroileostomy of Bricker (Figure 1).
Orbital exenteration and reconstruction with Mustarde flap were performed.
Tumours involving the eyelids are considered particularly high risk because of their ability to spread into the orbit, which may require exenteration (surgical excision of the globe and orbital contents) and may rarely be fatal.
She ultimately underwent orbital exenteration. Findings on systemic ophthalmologic follow-up were unremarkable until approximately 7 years later, when the patient developed persistent nasal obstruction.