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Nevertheless, the selected reference value of 0.5 L/min (variation in the ventilation per min) might be too narrow for graded exercise tests.
The study measured the women's cardiovascular fitness based on an exercise test.
All participants performed an incremental cycle ergometer exercise test until exhaustion to determine exercise intensities for the subsequent continuous cycle ergometer exercise tests (21).
Using a series of 4-5 min intermittent maximal exercise tests, they calculated the difference between C[O.sub.2] and the product of a metabolic respiratory quotient constant and V[O.sub.2] (C[O.sub.2] - V[O.sub.2] x 0.75).
For exercise test, Bruce protocol was applied and all tests' sessions were in the morning.
Cardiorespiratory fitness was evaluated using a graded arm crank exercise test performed at baseline and immediately after the training program.
Participants were informed not to consume food or drink (except water) within two to 3 hours of the exercise tests and avoid caffeinated products for 6 hours prior to the exercise test.
The subjects underwent one maximal and two submaximal cardiopulmonary treadmill exercise tests 24 to 72 hrs apart.
Incremental exercise tests are relatively accessible for the evaluation of COPD patients but, when coupled to physiological measurements, they require expensive equipment, which needs regular maintenance and calibration and qualified staff to overview the tests [9].
With institution ethical approval, trained endurance athletes, (n = 12) performed three incremental cardiopulmonary exercise tests to volitional exhaustion, on three different days at least 1 week apart.
All subjects performed three 7-minute bicycle exercise tests at workloads of 20 W and 30 W
His previous and current research is related to the reliability and validity of exercise tests and clinical trials of exercise training for people with diabetes.