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Although the beliefs of the exoteric cultures may appear to be inconsistent with those of the esoteric cultures, they are not really opposed to each other, as explained by anthropologist Carlos Castaneda's Mexican guide and mentor, Juan Matus, in Cataneda's book, 'The Teachings of Don Juan.
A doctrinal vision of Plato and other philosophers is, in fact, implied by Melzer's overarching contrast between a salutary, exoteric fiction and a potentially harmful secret doctrine.
An intellectual thought collective might actually concede that, as a corollary of its developed understanding of politics, it would be necessary to maintain an exoteric version of its doctrine for the masses--because that would be safer for the world and more beneficial for ordinary society--but simultaneously hold fast to an esoteric doctrine for a small closed elite, envisioned as the keepers of the flame of the collective's wisdom (Mirowski, 2013: 68).
This dichotomy is further informed by a more ancient level of conflict: the age-old conflict between exoteric and esoteric Islam.
While Chan retained a strong sense of connection to Chinese culture as it became Japanese Zen, the Zen that emerged in the West was both a by-product of pluralistic currents moving through the world in the nineteenth century and of cultural changes to Zen, especially in its exoteric aspects, as Zen accommodated itself to Western cultures.
The Bhaktas rejected polytheism, rejected exoteric rituals and propounded the equality of religions which were merely different paths leading to the same goal of God consciousness.
In more exoteric forms of Gnostic speculation there is an initial split between matter and spirit and along with a valuation of the latter a debasement of the former.
If the previous section was the comparative zenith at which the Light of Mary and the Light of Muhammad intersect (the comparison at a transcendent and spiritual level), then this section concerns the enlightened implications on the human plane of such an interpretation (the comparison at an exoteric level).
5% of the respondents believed that public libraries provide simple and exoteric resources for their users.
The alternative Yeshe O offered these misguided tantrikas was normative, exoteric Buddhism--the moral truths of cause and effect, and gradual path of self-improvement, generosity, and laboring for the welfare of others" (105).
The text is divided into two parts that focus on esoteric and exoteric visual forms.