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Visits back to the homeland organized by expellee organisations also became common during this time and led to another important realization about expellees' previous homes: their memory of the Heimat no longer corresponded with its current reality.
In their defense of the prewar archdiocese, Silesian Catholic expellee leaders in West Germany and their allies in the German Catholic hierarchy challenged the canonical legitimacy of Hlond's administrative changes in Germany's lost eastern provinces.
In contrast, in the 1950s the policy debates over reparations for victims of Nazi persecution, on the one hand, and laws to help expellees and POWs, on the other, showed the narrowness of the West German definition of "victim" and the basic unwillingness of Germans of all walks of life to acknowledge the crimes committed in the name of Germany.
The Austrian decision of 1945 not to grant full rights to ethnic German refugees and expellees living in Austria had to be revised after a few years, as it became clear that Austria had no chance of getting rid of the refugees.
A major contention point with Poland arose over the establishment of a center for expellees in Berlin.
Both the Allies and the new German states sought to give the expellees a sufficient sense of belonging in their new homes that they would not become a radicalized, potentially destabilizing force.
In the following, I will examine the various ways in which activists in the expellee organisations have used the ambiguity of homeland and belonging in the political process in Germany and increasingly in Europe to further a political agenda that, while it has undergone major changes, remains deeply problematic in some of its objectives and many of its implications.
Ethnic German immigrants (Spaetaussiedler) are guaranteed in the 1953 Federal Expellee and Refugee Law as amended in 1993 upon their legal resettlement or "return" to Germany.
1) Subject to the reservation of regulation by statute otherwise, a German within the meaning of this Basic Law is a person who possesses German citizenship or who has been admitted to the territory of the German Reich within the frontiers as of December 31, 1937, as a refugee or expellee of German ethnic origin or as the spouse or descendant of such a person.
Homeland security flagship product Iris Expellee Tracking System[R] focuses on border security by inhibiting the illegal entry of persons into any sovereign state.
They incorporated almost all West Germans into a community of shared interests and responsibilities: war-damaged and undamaged; rich and poor; propertied and unpropertied; expellee and local.
no one will take the expellee in, since expulsion is more dishonorable than imprisonment in the eyes of the rural population.