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As he notes, censorship was not always successful in the long term, as later readers often restored the anti-Christian passages marked out by expurgation or omitted in the print shop.
Thus, Holocaust deniers opportunistically have seized upon the expurgation of Anne's diary by her father and the subsequent publication of the "critical" and "definitive" versions of her diary as "proof" that it originally was a forgery.
Certain types of statements have overwhelmingly been held insufficient to constitute an unequivocal expurgation of bias.
The expurgation, suppression, and mutilation of texts occur all the time and for many sorts of reasons.
Instead of being seen as a form of devotion and respect, it is depicted in Memorial as an almost orgiastic cult in which those who join the procession are given the opportunity for a cathartic expurgation of their repressed desires, using it for much more than praying and doing penitence:
Closer to home, the Salem witch trials in colonial America were as much concerned with ritual expurgation as with crime and punishment.
Expurgation of library materials [An interpretation of the Library Bill of Rights].
Thomas Bowdler, the English editor who around 1820 rewrote Shakespeare and the Bible to delete their objectionable passages, gave our language its word for arbitrary expurgation, bowdlerize.
Despite his objections to expurgation, Whitman had a hand in, or at least approved, four different expurgated editions of Leaves of Grass.
This doesn't soft pedal philosophy--your eyes will still cross as you attempt to grasp the explanations; but, at least you're offered the gift of laughter as the authors skillfully move from expurgation to another great joke.
Fragnito's "The Expurgatory Policy of the Church and the Works of Gasparo Contarini" succinctly discusses the evolving versions of the Index of Prohibited Books and the problems of expurgation when the Congregation of the Index, its staff, and helpers lacked the resources (and willpower) to correct suspended books as the range of subject matter scrutinized increased especially in the 1590s.