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Biofilms are survival mechanisms implemented by bacteria in order to adapt to hostile extracellular environments.
In order for calcium to participate in cellular signal transduction processes, it has to be brought into the cell form the extracellular environment.
Her study focuses on efforts to enhance regeneration of adult neurons through manipulation of neuronal intrinsic properties that influence the way these cells respond to their extracellular environment.
Virus can also spread from cell to cell without contacting the extracellular environment.
Somehow, changing the pH in the extracellular environment and/or blocking the channel pores by the binding of protons seems to affect these channelopathies
Eukaryotic cells have a membrane that separates the cytoplasm from the extracellular environment.
These ultra-thin protein 'package' the haemoglobin molecules and protect them from exposure to the hostile extracellular environment, while allowing them to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Scientists base such studies on the knowledge that these drugs can manipulate the extracellular environment, expanding constricted vessels in the brain or preventing a toxic concentration of calcium ions from entering neurons.