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Related to extracellular fluid: intracellular fluid
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Use of bioimpedance spectroscopy to determine extracellular fluid, intracellular fluid, total body water, and fat-free mass.
As extracellular fluid volume increases, the person begins to experience oedema.
For example, the clinical assessment of the extracellular fluid volume in patients with hyponatremia has a low diagnostic sensitivity and specificity (1).
The parathyroid gland senses the level of calcium in the extracellular fluid by the cell surface calcium receptor (CaR).
Renal secretion of renin activates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway, leading to hormonal regulation of water and sodium in the extracellular fluid, and to maintenance of blood pressure via this and vasoconstrictive mechanisms (see fig 1).
In this study, we defined "residual-limb fluid volume change" as the extracellular fluid volume change measured using the multifrequency bioimpedance analysis system.
Hypocalcaemia is a medical condition, usually caused by a hormone imbalance, in which the concentration of ionized calcium in the blood and in extracellular fluid is abnormally low.
Non-respiratory (Metgabolic) alkalosis is characterized by a primary increase in the extracellular fluid bicarbonate concentration, with a consequent reduction in hydrogen ions.
Because of the used flow rate of 1 [micro]L/min, the concentration in the dialysate reaches only partial equilibration and thus does not reflect the absolute concentration in the extracellular fluid.
The main obstacles encountered by scientists trying to develop such inhibitors were high toxicity leading to unacceptable side-effects, and low bioavailability since most of the potential drugs were not soluble in water and hence could not effectively reach the extracellular fluid, where their target proteins are found.

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