fault

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Related to fault isolation: fault detection, Fault diagnosis

Fault

Neglect of care; an act to which blame or censure is attached. Fault implies any Negligence, error, or defect of judgment.

Fault has been held to embrace a refusal to perform an action that one is legally obligated to do, such as the failure to make a payment when due.

fault

one of the central concepts in the law of tort or delict. A legal system can look at harmful conduct in different ways. It can focus on the interest infringed and declare it a tort to occupy another's property, for example. However, this produces results that certainly cause moral problems and thus eventually cause legal problems. So where a person inadvertently infringes another's interest, the law has to decide whether to penalize or not. Generally, the more advanced a legal system, the more it is likely to take this into account. Thus, Roman law achieved this result in the early years of the first millennium and English law began to do so towards the end of the second. In the 19th century especially, the proposition began to be put in reverse, it being said that there would be no liability without fault, fault being necessary but not necessarily sufficient to establish liability. Fault had the benefit of comprising most existing categories of case where the plaintiff deliberately harmed the defendant, but it also allowed cases where the defendant had been careless to be included. Fault became associated with intentional wrongdoing or recklessness, which was its equivalent, and also with certain instances of carelessness.

In civilian systems, fault in this sense of exhibiting less than reasonable care would be sufficient to establish a prima facie case but would be subject to limitation in the scope of liability in the basis of the notion of remoteness. English law (and ironically) Scots law took a different course with the decision in Donoghue v. Stevenson 1932 SC (HL) 31, which established that a lack of care would constitute fault but only where there was a pre-existing duty of care. This duty could be found in precedent or arise from the relationship between the parties. Fault became much more a technical concept after that, and its moral aspect diminished. An objective approach to some aspects of the investigation into liability was a further blow to any moral approach. Fault in the later part of the 20th century fell out of favour as a mechanism for achieving many of the things that tort or delict did. Exhortation of citizens is better done through penalties inflicted through an efficient criminal justice system backed by an organized police force. The existence of an insurance industry can make it economically efficient to redirect liability in the direction of the person who is most likely to be able to acquire insurance cover at lowest cost, thus ensuring that injured persons seeking compensation are actually compensated without recourse to general taxation or charity. Statutory strict liability is beginning to appear in the interstices of the law so that fault may become a safety net for cases outside strict liability.

References in periodicals archive ?
Thus, compared with the other four PCA models, the PCA model with parameter selection criterion of correlation shows the best performance on sensor fault isolation with small drifts.
The temperature value [[??].sub.u] estimated by observer 1 measured based on [T.sub.p] in dot-dash line can substitute the measured [T.sub.u] in solid line, allowing the continuous operation of the process and guaranteeing accuracy of process/actuator fault isolation.
In this case, the point of fault isolation is simply to ascertain whether a measured value is found in only one violated inequality or in several.
Bus and switches are completely reliable, fault isolation and recovery time takes constantly 1 h, and the number of users for each load point is one.
The inputs to the VAV boxes are forced to assume different values to facilitate fault isolation. Then it is checked if any performance index corresponding to a single fault remains continuously minimum (among the single fault performance indices) for at least 75 seconds.
Proactive automatic testing is used for fault isolation, one of the key functions in a process for automatically commissioning HVAC systems and their components.
The tricky bit is adding fault isolation, like the kind of fault isolation that Sun provides with dynamic domain hardware partitions.
Modules are fabricated and operated independently and tested prior to final installation by utilizing its plug-in connector arrangement for additional performance monitor and fault isolation. A final test is then accomplished that includes pre-acceptance testing in accordance with an approved test procedure.
"The capability to perform testing and fault isolation of electronic systems in real time from a remote site can achieve significant cost savings for us as well as the industry as a whole," said Joe Woo, Lockheed Martin's product team leader for the project.
* Logical ATM Network Fault Isolation Isolates ATM networking problems to the root cause, reducing Troubleshooting time and accelerating service restoration.
The modular, hot-swappable, chassis-based unit has fault isolation circuitry that alerts for broken fibers.

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