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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
However, other research shows older Sonoran pronghorn pellets have lower DNA amplification success rates, and if the objective is to use these measurement methods in conjunction with individual identification from fecal DNA, pellets older than seven days will be of little use (Woodruff et al.
5 Kb band was successfully amplified using genomic DNA samples isolated with the UltraClean[TM] Fecal DNA kit and GoTaq[R] Green DNA polymerase (Figure 1).
The fecal DNA genotyping of is more advantageous than the traditional live-trapping survey technique (Taberlet and Luikart, 1999; Fernando et al.
Detection of epigenetic changes in fecal DNA as a molecular screening test for colorectal cancer: a feasibility study.
Fecal DNA biomarkers for the detection of colorectal neoplasia: attractive, but is it feasible?
In 418 patients with advanced neoplasia (tubular adenoma 1 cm or larger, villous polyp, polyp with high-grade dysplasia, or cancer), fecal DNA testing had a significantly greater sensitivity than fecal occult-blood testing (18% vs.
The total fecal DNA, DGGE fingerprint for the eighth week for both CON and DFM1 is shown in Figure 1(a).
In a simulated cohort of 100,000 people, fecal DNA screening every 5 years saved 4,560 life-years at an incremental cost of $47,700 per life-year gained, compared with no screening.
1 mM concentrations each of 2'-deoxynucleoside 5'-triphosphate, 2 U of recombinant DNA polymerase (rTaq) (Perkin Elmer, Norwalk, CT), and 10 [micro]l purified fecal DNA.
Stool DNA testing (also called fecal DNA testing ) is not currently recommended as a method to screen for colorectal cancer by the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF).
The panel found insufficient evidence to recommend two newer, non-invasive screening options: computed tomography (CT) colonography and fecal DNA testing.