dna

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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
However, other research shows older Sonoran pronghorn pellets have lower DNA amplification success rates, and if the objective is to use these measurement methods in conjunction with individual identification from fecal DNA, pellets older than seven days will be of little use (Woodruff et al.
A 1.5 Kb band was successfully amplified using genomic DNA samples isolated with the UltraClean[TM] Fecal DNA kit and GoTaq[R] Green DNA polymerase (Figure 1).
Keywords: Pygmy lorises, Nycticebus pygmaeus, fecal DNA, DNA extraction, noninvasive sampling.
Detection of epigenetic changes in fecal DNA as a molecular screening test for colorectal cancer: a feasibility study.
Fecal DNA biomarkers for the detection of colorectal neoplasia: attractive, but is it feasible?
Tenders are invited for Supply of Power Fecal Dna Isolation Kit In A Proprietary Item Of Mobio Inc.
PCR-DGGE: The fecal DNA of the eight week was extracted by the method of RBB+C (Yu et al., 2004).
Covering the same potential mutations but using another assay, the largest study in the field, which was aimed at the evaluation of fecal DNA testing for the detection of colorectal neoplasms, reported a prevalence of only 1.5% (22/1423) among persons with negative colonoscopy results (15).
Fecal DNA testing detects advanced colorectal neoplasia in asymptomatic patients at average risk for colorectal cancer with a significantly greater sensitivity than fecal occult-blood testing, reported Thomas F.
Specifically, other techniques seek amplicons directly from stool cultures (17) or employ fecal DNA extraction (4), whereas we assessed isolated, randomly picked colonies.
Stool DNA testing (also called fecal DNA testing ) is not currently recommended as a method to screen for colorectal cancer by the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF).