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H antigens are the flagellin protein subunit that polymerizes to form bacterial flagella.
However, available experimental data support the role of IAP in catalyzing the breakdown of monophosphates and detoxifying bacterial LPS, CpG DNA, and flagellin as well as extracellular nucleotides, such as UDP, resulting in lower TLRs activation and regulating inflammation and gut microbiota.
Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato-specific gene segments by real-time blood PCR were detected (using a locally developed method that amplifies a fragment of flagellin gene).
This includes activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4) by lipopolysaccharide and Toll-like receptor 5 (Tlr5) by bacterial flagellin.
Impact of inactivated extracellular proteases on the modified flagellin type 111 secretion pathway of Bacillus halodurans.
Flagellin A gene (flaA) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was chosen as a simple and reliable method (11).
After DNA extraction from the bacterial isolate, a highly specific 495 bp fragment of fliC-d gene (phase-1 flagellin gene for d antigen [H:d]) was successfully amplified in first round, regular PCR [Fig.
Each TLR recognizes a particular signature; for example, TLR-4 recognizes lipopolysaccharide from the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria, whereas TLR-5 detects bacterial flagellin [140].
burgdorferi in extracts of formal-infixed, paraffin-embedded heart tissue based on outer surface protein A, flagellin, and plasminogen-binding protein gene targets.
Innate immune cells carry special molecules called Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on their surface that recognize and bind highly conserved structures on bacterial, fungal, or viral surfaces, including peptidoglycan, flagellin, zymosan, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS, also known as endotoxin) (Janeway and Medzhitov 2002).
burgdorferi flagellin DNA sequences by polymerase chain reaction of skin biopsies.