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What is more, knowing these rules also helps the reader in deciding whether a particular passage of text is internally focalized.
We need to make them more specific in order to deal with the particular cooperative enterprise of communicating that a text is internally focalized.
Quite obviously, this maxim does not cover what writers of fiction normally do, irrespective of whether their narration is internally focalized or not.
What is special about internally focalized narration, it will be remembered, is that a focalizer's point of view, rather than what the author takes to be true, limits what is said in the text.
On the one hand, the intriguing point is that not only the focalizer, but along with it the focalized is involved as well in constant temporary shifting: that of the source of perception from one focalizer character into the other; so the thoughts and emotions of the first character becomes focalized, and the other, who is the source of what was previously focalized, becomes focalizer--and this happens reciprocally and repeatedly, woven into strongly inter-related and coherent sentences.
The indefiniteness of the focalizer and that of the source of what is focalized both have a puzzling effect, in repeatedly frustrating the inferences and attributions that are created as reading proceeds.
of different character-focalizers with shifts in the focalized as well, respectively, as in Virginia Woolfs or Lawrence's later novels as well) is also much less taken into account, than mingling and alternation of narratorial and internal focalizations.
of the position of the focalizer) is the linguistic realisation of the psychological theme I identify as the 'dislocation of sensibility;' and the resulting indefiniteness of the source of the thoughts and emotions that are focalized, is the realisation of theme I consider the most important and conspicuous: the 'loss of the self in relationships.
In a long section focalized through Karin (53-65), Mark tells her she is not his sister, and this is the point where his Capgras first comes to the fore.
There is almost no story in this first section, and hardly any history either--this is not even the mind reading itself in terms of what it knows locally, but a very low level of consciousness that seems to be informed by and perhaps even jointly focalized with the local birds.
In the next section focalized through Mark during his early days in hospital (18-20), the first three sentences echo the elements of water, pain and sudden event that constituted the core of the first section: "Rises up in flooded fields.
The fifth and final section (49-50) focalized through Mark before Capgras is diagnosed, is all about language--his own and that of the people who talk to him.