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Finally, I include a measure of ethnic fractionalization in both the selection (civil war) and outcome (genocide) stages of the model.
only in Model 3, religious fractionalization is significant in Models 1
Of the theories and mechanisms discussed at the beginning this article regarding how immigrants may impact institutions, the strongest confirmation is that immigration may act via the channel of fractionalization, reducing the willingness of voters to fund large public sectors.
2010) and the corruption perception index (Transparency International 2017) as a proxy for government institutions, and v) religious fractionalization (Alesina et al.
In contrast to these positive factors, measures of fractionalization do not indicate the potential for a successful democratic transition but rather the potential for failure.
The fractionalization data have been obtained from the study of Alesina et al.
The value of the ethnic fractionalization index ranges between 0 and 1.
Analyzing the economic damage caused by climate-related disasters from the past three decades -- from 1980 to 2010 -, and the degree of coincidence between these disasters and armed conflicts within the different countries, scientists have found that natural disasters can particularly increase the risk of conflict outbreak in countries that have a high ethnic fractionalization.
Following Easterly and Levine (1997), many empirical studies have found a negative and significant relationship between ethnolinguistic fractionalization (ELF) and institutional quality and/or economic performance (Faria and Montesinos 2009; Hall and Jones 1999; Sala-i-Martin, Doppelhofer, and Miller 2004).
There's so many different feelings of fractionalization around issues.
To mitigate the endogeneity concern that our results may be driven by a failure to control for institutions that determine both culture and profit reinvestment, we instrument Embeddedness and Hierarchy with a country's latitude as well as its religious composition and fractionalization.
Keywords: Ethnic cohesion, fractionalization, polarization.