The researchers found that when adjusting for age, sex, and educational attainment, all three measures of frailty
were associated with lower levels of lutein (relative risk ratios [RRRs], 0.43 to 0.63), zeaxanthin (RRRs, 0.49 to 0.63), and vitamin D (RRRs, 0.51 to 0.75).
is a common chronic syndrome which affects up to 25% of adults over 65 years and over half of adults over 80.
In the study lower levels of lutein, zeaxanthin, and vitamin D were consistently associated with not only frailty
but also earlier stages of 'pre-frailty' (a subclinical precursor of frailty
They concluded that 4.3% of people in that age group develop frailty
each year, and that women are more vulnerable than men.
There are many assessment models that have been used to assess frailty
. The two most commonly used models are the frailty
phenotype  and the frailty
index or deficit accumulation.
Once an individual demonstrated interest, an interview was scheduled to complete anamnesis, frailty
screening, and cardiovascular assessment; this was completed in the Physiotherapy Department of the Federal University of Sao Carlos (Brazil).
Trial participants, with an average age of 76, showed marked improvement in physical performance, lung function and reduction of inflammation, all significant biomarkers of frailty
Additionally, both frailty
scales were analyzed in a logistic regression analysis to determine their sole or combined effect on mortality.
"While more research is needed, given that frailty
is potentially reversible, it is possible that helping people to maintain function and independence in later life could reduce both dementia risk and the severity of debilitating symptoms common in this disease," said Professor Kenneth Rock-wood, MD, of the Nova Scotia Health Authority and Dalhousie University in Halifax, N.S., in a press release.
Several instruments or tools have been developed to aid the identification of frailty
in PC setting.
The term frailty
is common, and many are its vernacular meanings.
The methods have been highlighted as the 'most effective' interventions to delay or reverse frailty
in the research.