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To reduce human exposure to fumigants, California regulations require growers to maintain unfumigated buffer zones between fumigant applications and nearby buildings.
Agricultural Fumigants Market by Type (Methyl Bromide, Phosphine, Chloropicrin, Metam Sodium, 1, 3-Dichloropropene), Application (Soil and Warehouse), Form (Gas, Solid, Liquid), and by Region - Global Forecast to 2021
Botanicals extracted from higher plants have been found suitable after investigating their fumigant insecticidal properties by many scientists (Isman 2006 2008; Rajendran and Sriranjini 2008; Sagheer et al.
The fumigant is a hazardous substance and is extremely dangerous to human health, as it turns from solid state to gas once the package is opened, spreading the deadly phosphine (PH3) that causes poisoning and death.
Fumigant performance was assessed by measuring residual chemical in the wood as well as by culturing to detect the presence of viable fungi l, 3, 7, 10, and 12 years after treatment.
Under requirements being imposed by EPA, growers who use fumigants will need to establish buffer areas around treated fields to protect neighbors from excessive exposure and develop detailed management plans that include either fumigant monitoring or notifying neighbors of fumigant applications.
Methyl iodide is a soil fumigant used on strawberry, tomato, and pepper crops as well as fruit and nut trees.
The effective diffusion coefficient of a fumigant is related to the sorption of gas by grain bulks.
Oregon's reported pesticide use dropped by half from the 2007 report, mostly due to a decline in the use of metam-sodium, a soil fumigant used in potato production, Code said.
Adult insects, 1-7 days old, were used for fumigant toxicity tests.
Soil fumigants are used to control root diseases, weeds, and nematodes.
The changes made to phosphine usage were significant, including the requirement for site-specific fumigant management plans, training and certification requirements, and additional label modifications to reduce harmful exposures.