perforation

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Niemeier classified gallbladder perforations intro three types and the Niemeier classification is still used today.
To estimate the proportion of gallbladder perforation in acute abdomen cases operated during the period of 2013 to 2016--A descriptive study.
Acute acalculous cholecystitis associated with gallbladder perforation is often seen with severe infections like pneumonia, viral infections, and with enteric fever where the causative organism Salmonella typhii was identified in bile and are further concentrated in gallbladder (7).
Chi-Square" test was used to compare both instruments in terms of gallbladder perforation rate and a "p-value" of < 0.
Acute cholecystitis may lead to serious complications such as sepsis pericholecystic abscess or bilious peritonitis secondary to gallbladder perforation (GBP).
Dunnegan, "Does intraoperative gallbladder perforation influence the early outcome of laparoscopic cholecystectomy?
They concluded that gallbladder perforation and stone spillage might cause hazardous complications, and in case of loss of numerous or large pigmented stones conversion to open surgery may be justified.
The recommended treatment for gallbladder perforation is a total cholecystectomy, but a retrograde subtotal cholecystectomy may be required if the gallbladder is very friable.
In the study conducted by Kimura T et al intraoperative gallbladder perforation occurred in 29 of the 110 patients (26.
Gallbladder perforation was first reported by Duncan in 1889.
Results: There is an increased risk of iatrogenic gallbladder perforation, and an increased operative time in laparoscopic cholecystectomies by using electrosurgical cautery as compared to harmonic scalpel.
l) CT scan can detect the intraperitoneal free fluid, pericholecystic free fluid, abscess, thickening of the wall in the gallbladder, and the defect on the wall which are highly suggestive of gallbladder perforation.