galled


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Number of insect galls by galled plant organ in the Restinga of Marambaia (Barra de Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ).
Dosage of nitrogen and carbohydrates: In order to detect the periods of increased nutrients availability (nitrogen and carbohydrates), non-galled and galled leaves (n=10) from 10 individuals were collected monthly from October 2009 to September 2010.
Nearest-neighbor galled (g+) and ungalled (g-) leaves were collected from five trees (approximately equal numbers from each tree) on the following dates in 1991, starting when the galls were first detectable: 20 May(n = 22g+ and 22 g-), 29 May (n = 26g+ and 26 g-), 24 June (n = 20 g+ and 20 g-), 11 July (n = 20 g+ and 20 g-), and 7 August (n = 20 g+ and 20 g-).
The main variable was galled leaves per shoot on the main axis of each plant, which we measured in 1988 and 1989 in every plant in the plot.
The length and width of the galled leaflets (n = 40), and the length of the galls (n = 40) were measured with the aid of a digital caliper.
Herbivory was expressed as the percentage of ramets per plant galled or browsed.
Densities of galls were first analyzed using a two-way ANOVA with proportion of stems galled per pot as the dependent variable and receptor island and plant clone as the main effects.
For each branchlet, we recorded the number of leaves and total number of galls, and then chose one galled leaf at random as the "focal" leaf.
The previously collected galled shoots were placed five per plant among the elongating shoots at roughly the height of their apical meristems.
This relationship was not due to fewer plant species, or lower proportions of galled plant species at sites with higher soil fertility, as these were not significantly different across the sites.