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In summary, this study provides clear evidence that in utero exposure to a common environmental pollutant induces somatic mosaicism in tissues originating from all three germ layers and germline mosaicism in the F1 generation.
We also showed that these cell lines had AP activity and expressed pluripotent markers such as Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog, The cell lines also formed EBs, revealed normal karyotypes, and were capable of differentiating into the three germ layers.
Our results do not allow us to determine which of these features best explains the shift in germ layer allocation we observed.
Colleagues are also pursuing similar bioengineering-based approaches to generate other similar expandable progenitor cell populations capable of differentiation into mature cell types derived from other germ layers.
Therefore, porcine ES-like cells could differentiate into cells of three germ layers and demonstrated their ability to differentiation in vitro.
The team uses cell lines that fluoresce in different colors when they become part of a germ layer, which allows the researchers to monitor the process dynamically.
Two or more embryonic germ layer derivatives were apparent in each of the tumors, and all three were represented in 90% or more of the cases.
Mesoderm is the germ layer lying adjacent to the endoderm.
Various signaling pathways are important for this germ layer organization, including the Wnt/[beta]-catenin signaling pathway.
But, unlike other human-made stem cells that are "pluripotent" and can become any other cells in the body, these cells differentiated only into cells from the same germ layer, ectoderm.
3] They are composed of one or more germ layers derived from a pluripotent precursor cell.
Maintenance of developmental potential for contribution of derivatives of all three germ layers is an important feature of these cells.