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GoGn, CoGn, Co-Pog, Jarabak index, GoGn-Sn, palatal-GoGn, facial angle, gonial angle, and U1 to SN also showed significant changes (Table 1, 2).
Mandibular alterations may be unilateral or bilateral and include enlarged mandibular and mental foramen, widened inferior alveolar canal, branching of mandibular canal, hyperostosis, deepened sigmoid notch, elongated condylar neck, rarefied condylar and coronoid process, medial concavity in mandibular ramus, decreased or flat gonial angle, irregular inferior cortex, and cyst like lesions [1-4, 6].
Caption: Figure 1: (a) Extraoral frontal view shows swelling on right side of face, (b) intraoral view shows alveolar enlargement and missing teeth on right side, (c) OPG shows intraosseous radiolucency (chevron) with impacted 46, enlarged mandibular canal (1), enlarged mental foramen (2), deep sigmoid notch (3), narrow condyle and pseudoelongation of condylar neck (4), notching of gonial angle (5), and supernumerary tooth in maxilla (6).
Conclusion: Pakistani males and females demonstrated a significant difference in saddle angle, gonial angle, articular angle, upper gonial angle and lower gonial angle (p less than 0.
A comparison of the angular and linear measurements according to the Jarabak\'s analysis in the Pakistani and Caucasian population showed that the Pakistani males had all of their angular as well as linear measurements significantly different than the Caucasians including the saddle angle, gonial angle, articular angle, upper gonial angle and lower gonial angle, (p less than 0.
The final instrument included: Facial profile, Anterior lower face height, Size of the mandibular body, Mandibular plane inclination, Gonial angle and Menton position.
The gonial angle was determined by tracing a tangent to the lower border of the mandible and another tangent to the posterior ramus of the mandible both on OPG and lateral cephalogram manually and measured with the help of protractor.
It has been stated that panoramic radiographs are accurate in determining the gonial angle and there is no significant difference between the rights and left sides in panoramic radiography (33).
Key Words: Mandibular asymmetry, mixed dentition, ramus height, ramus width, gonial angle.
1-4 Facial types are determined by different parameters, such as ratio between the lower and upper anterior facial height, the angle formed between the mandibular plane and the base of the skull, and the gonial angle.
One angular measurement( SN-PP) was closer to the mean Caucasian sample values but there was more obliquity to the Gonial angle.
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of age and gender differences (three mandibular parameters gonial angle, ramus height and bigonial width) in dentate Jordanian subjects using digital panoramic radiography.