This results in a number of obvious statements, as for example the conclusion of chapter 2, with its assertion that guildsmen
's participation in lobbying efforts meant to curb rising prices and deter hoarding "confirm[s] that ordinary men and women could see themselves as political actors and behave accordingly" (47).
As for Machiavelli, what evidence is there that he or those who thought like him were more inclined to republicanism than were medieval guildsmen
and burghers or Calvinists?
were less concerned with sex-typing of labor than with the power of the master within the polity.
The final conquest of Envy depends upon the mayor's guildsmen
, suggesting the alliance of virtue and power by which the magistrate must govern.
Millers were indeed involved in the Rising, but that scarcely justifies the apparent assigning of John the Carpenter to the peasantry (270-2), especially as the Guildsmen
, with their own carpenter among them, are seen as firmly bourgeois.
In chapter 4 Epstein ranges beyond the stated scope of his inquiry in considering the subject of guilds and labor in the wider world: that is, how guildsmen
as employers interacted with society at large and how they were perceived from outside, particularly by the Church.
Also traveling on the pilgrimage is a group of five guildsmen
, members of a fraternal order.
As much as being forerunners of the modem bourgeoisie, they were throwbacks to the free guildsmen
of medieval republics.
The recognition that no local region is like another; that, nonetheless, the civic, courtly, and regional were interdependent, is important, throwing the spotlight on, for instance, the politically edgy writing, fictional and real, of an urban textual community of female stallholders; on the councillors, guildsmen
, ministers, and lawyers who were benefactors to town colleges; or the notaries public (priests or secular clerks working in shops, churches, booths), essential to community legal matters but also to various forms of book-making, either for patrons or personal interest.
King Edward seeks out Robin, not the other way around, playing a part, seeing himself as one with the people, mixing with the townsfolk, taking outlaws into his court, and ignoring their criminal deeds "for the sake of public approval and a sense of economic and social unity with the guildsmen
" (Kaufman 44).
Nevertheless, peddlers, colporteurs, hair collectors and circulating guildsmen
crisscrossed the countryside.
In an entry from 31 January 1422 from the A/Y Memorandum Book, the Painters and Stainers, for example, deplore the fragmentation of the Corpus Christi play in too many pageants and point out that "unless a better and more speedy device be provided, it is to be feared that it [the play] will be impeded much further in a very brief passage of time." (15) The guildsmen
's criticism touches specifically on what they perceive as an inefficient division of labor in the production of the Passion of Christ.