As for Machiavelli, what evidence is there that he or those who thought like him were more inclined to republicanism than were medieval guildsmen
and burghers or Calvinists?
were less concerned with sex-typing of labor than with the power of the master within the polity.
The final conquest of Envy depends upon the mayor's guildsmen
, suggesting the alliance of virtue and power by which the magistrate must govern.
In chapter 4 Epstein ranges beyond the stated scope of his inquiry in considering the subject of guilds and labor in the wider world: that is, how guildsmen
as employers interacted with society at large and how they were perceived from outside, particularly by the Church.
Also traveling on the pilgrimage is a group of five guildsmen
, members of a fraternal order.
As much as being forerunners of the modem bourgeoisie, they were throwbacks to the free guildsmen
of medieval republics.
Thus the herald's speech works on several levels: he voices the bible's command that the Levites 'minister before the Ark' and he metatheatrically prompts the guildsmen
to administer their performance of the pageant.
Nevertheless, peddlers, colporteurs, hair collectors and circulating guildsmen
crisscrossed the countryside.
The Mercers remind fellow guildsmen
that human beings can doom themselves through their lack of charity (341-48).
Within it the guildsmen
took their duties seriously, with plenty of banquets and revelry.
Traditionally, they were presented for three days around the festival of Corpus Christi and enacted by guildsmen
and craftsmen in improvised settings.