A Case of Engorged Female Hard Tick
in the External Auditory Canal of an Infant.
Although less familiar than the hard ticks
, soft ticks (family Argasidae) also have been known to transmit microbial pathogens that can cause serious illnesses in humans and animals, e.g.
Contrarily, KLOMPEN et al (2000) suggested that the hard ticks
evolved 120 Mya later, after Australia became relatively isolated.
Ticks that transmit disease to animals and humans can be divided into two groups: the hard ticks
(Ixodidae) (Figure 4-1) and the soft ticks (Argasidae).
Ticks have been categorized in three well-defined families: Argasidae (soft ticks), Ixodidae (hard ticks
), and Nuttalliellidae.
parkeri has also been detected in other hard ticks
, including A.
Tick biology--There are three families of ticks recognized in the world today: (1) Ixodidae (hard ticks
), (2) Argasidae (soft ticks), and (3) Nuttalliellidae, a small, curious, little-known group with some characteristics of both hard and soft ticks (Varma, 1993).
More research on the ecology of hard ticks
will help validate or invalidate these hypotheses.
The integration of multiple independent data reveals an unusual response to Pleistocene climatic changes in the hard tick
Table-3 Genus-wise distribution of hard tick
in three districts of Punjab
The present study aimed at determining the hard tick
species and their abundance with respect to host-related risk factors in Bos permiginu s cattle was conducted in farm houses at three main regions (Western by-pass, Spiny village, and Sariab region) of District Quetta from March, 2013 to March, 2014.
Tick fauna of Pakistan is rich in number of genera and species (Rasul and Akhtar, 1975; Hussain and Kumar, 1985), and the prevalence of Hyalomma species is significantly higher than Haemaphysalis, Amblyomma and Boophilus species of hard tick
(Ali et al., 2009).