Tough physical practices in hot, humid conditions increase the risk of a wide range of exertional heat illness
Diagnoses were limited to prespecified options: prior to the 2012/ 2013 academic year, the only EHI diagnosis available was heat exhaustion/heat stroke, but EHI-related diagnoses were expanded beginning in 2012/2013 to include heat syncope, heat exhaustion, heat stroke, heat cramps, and other heat illness
. All athletic trainers who contributed to HS RIO were NATA-affiliated, and prior research has suggested that athletic trainers successfully diagnose diverse orthopedic injuries in high concordance with physicians (Lombardi et al.
Even before the Walters report was released, the University of Maryland said it had made changes to prevent heat illness
among athletes following preliminary recommendations from the investigation.
"The two defendants did the best they could in the circumstances of fewer resources than requested, a lack of even the most basic training in relation to heat illness
and risk assessment and within the culture that existed at the time."
They did not respond properly when heat illness
started to arise."
Mr Mably told the board that the risk of heat illness
was well known and "the defendants ought to have taken proper attention" to it.
"Children are more sensitive to heat and cold stress than adults and are more susceptible to dehydration and heat illnesses
. Heat tolerance is directly affected by body size and children have a lower ability to tolerate heat," says Dr.
Patients develop heat stroke without having had milder forms of heat illness
, and patients with a milder type of heat illness
usually do not progress to heat stroke.
He was co-chair of the National Athletic Trainers' Association Inter-Association Task Force on Sickle Cell Trait in Athletes and a member of the Inter-Association Task Force on Exertional Heat Illness
. He served as chair of the Big 12 Conference Medical Aspects of Sport Committee from 1999 to 2002.<br />
It covers choosing the right sport, sports for students with disabilities, physicals, nutrition, water, energy drinks, sports pressure and competition, eating disorders, the female athlete triad, abuse in sports, overtraining, anabolic steroids, alcohol and marijuana, and dietary supplements; safety and injury prevention tips like preseason conditioning, warming up, protective equipment, selecting the right clothes and shoes, and tips for specific sports; the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of injuries like heat illness
, sprains, broken bones, concussions, and injuries to various body parts; and rehabilitation, including the role of athletic trainers, medical decision making, return to play, and sports injuries and arthritis.
"Avoid fluids that contain alcohol or caffeine, because they can add to dehydration and increase the effects of heat illness
," he added.
People in supervisory positions such as coaches, trainers, and life guards should be trained to specifically recognize signs of heat illness
and other kinds of preventive measures, health expert informed.