Ueno, "T follicular helper cells
in human autoimmunity," Current Opinion in Immunology, vol.
Martinez et al., "Bcl6 mediates the development of T follicular helper cells
," Science, vol.
Role of interferon alpha in promoting T helper cell
type 1 responces in the small intestine in coeliac disease.
Given this previous result, we aimed to intensify the alcohol-induced impairment of immunity and to test the hypothesis that several (more) days of excess alcohol consumption results in a more pronounced immunosuppression with respect to T helper cells
and cytokine production.
Typically, when an infection or injury occurs, the body rushes helper cells
to the site to clean and repair the area.
The resulting immune dysfunction in HIV patients is likely due to combinatorial effects resulting from infection of immune cells ([CD4.sup.+]T cells, macrophages, dendritic cells) with HIV, uncontrolled viral replication that impairs antigen presentation, increased mutations in env protein gp120 that leads to virus tropism and survival, increased activation of T helper cells
by alloantigens, increased apoptosis by activated [CD4.sup.+]T helper cells
, down-regulation of [CD4.sup.+]synthesis with functional impairment, and perturbation of cytokine pathways [4-6].
BALTIMORE, Md., August 27, 2013 -- Specially engineered "helper cells
" transplanted along with stem cells can dole out growth factors to increase the stem cells' endurance, at least briefly, researchers report.
Peter Krammer and colleagues at the German Center for Cancer Research, in Heidelberg, Germany, suspected that the helper cells
' contact with Tregs affects steps in the signaling cascade that leads to the helper cells
We are also investigating the influence of these genetic markers on the different immunological and virological parameters among the Omani AIDS patients on HAART and also determining alleles (which are to be identified) among good and poor responders to HAART among these patients and hopefully deciphering the mechanism(s) that may explain HLA/AIDS association such as HLA assembly, trafficking and proteomic studies of CD4+ T helper cells
and macrophages on the study groups," he added.
Natural helper cells
were first found in the gut, where they protect against parasitic worm infections.
NeuVax stimulates CD8+ T-cells, also known as killer T-cells, while the AE37 stimulates CD4+ T helper cells
. With both vaccines, patients receive monthly shots for several months.
T helper cells
are known to activate and direct other immune cells by the release of cell-cell signaling proteins.