In addition to the activation by hematopoietic growth factors
, p38 MAPK can be activated by cytokines that negatively regulate normal hematopoiesis, which include type I interferons (IFNs) (IFN-[alpha], IFN-[beta]).
Some chapters are broader in scope, discussing such topics as clinical strategies for cancer treatment, preclinical aspects of cancer drug discovery, pharmacokinetics, infertility after cancer chemotherapy, carcinogenesis of anticancer drugs, antibody therapies of cancer, hematopoietic growth factors
, the role of the Food and Drug Administration in oncology product development, and hormonal therapy for breast cancer.
Hematopoietic growth factors
and monoclonal antibodies, increasingly advocated as adjunctive agents to prolong the duration of treatment and reduce tumor growth, added still more costs.
Pecora concluded, "Expanded stem cells have the potential to provide a therapeutic benefit similar to hematopoietic growth factors
; improving bone marrow function resulting in fewer infections, less bleeding complications and better overall outcomes."
At the same time, the advent of hematopoietic growth factors
and the use of peripheral stem cell transplants has lowered the risk of the procedure.