On the other hand, the observed population structure conforming with random mating among stromata-forming strains suggests that at least occasional horizontal transmission
controls 22 NA 23 NA * CWD, chronic wasting disease; D, aspartic acid; G, glycine; horizontal, horizontal transmission
; M, methionine; md, mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus); N, asparagine; NA, not applicable; neg., negative; S, serine; V, valine; wtd, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).
This difference in investment in immune defense among birds that reuse and birds that do not reuse nests is most readily explained as an adaptation to differences in the relative importance of horizontal transmission
and hence in the virulence of their parasites.
In the second type of clade, vertical transmission rates far exceed those of horizontal transmission
. Wolbachia and the flavobacterial lineage associated with arthropods are in this group.
Thus, the temporal asynchrony between reservoir population density and prevalence of infection on both the year-to-year and within-year scales can be explained by the interaction of seasonal changes in population structure and horizontal transmission
stolonifer is potent repellent, induces reduction in food consumption, provoke cannibalism and being less virulent it provides higher opportunity for horizontal transmission
and cause mortality.
vulgaris, that is, strains J7 and J10 in our laboratory, we found that the horizontal transmission
of symbiotic chlorococci into some non-symbiotic strains, for example, H.
In order to sample for horizontal transmission
trial, samples of 4 males from the challenge group were randomly taken at day 7 after the exposure to detect the presence of EHP using histopathological analysis and PCR method.
When a vertically polarized wave at 5.25 GHz is incident, due to the geometrical symmetry of the horizontal transmission
line, an open circuit appears at the midpoint of this line when the switch is off.
gondii infection in DDP caprines can be the source of the vertical (Lopes et al., 2013) as well as horizontal transmission
of disease (Asgari et al., 2011) and impending zoonosis as well.
Use of ART and achieving complete viral suppression can reduce the risk of horizontal transmission
in serodiscordant couples by as much as 96% (19).