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VIOLENCE. The abuse of force. Theorie des Lois Criminelles, 32. That force which is employed against common right, against the laws, and against public liberty. Merl. h. t, 2. In cases of robbery, in order to convict the accused, it is requisite to prove that the act was done with violence; but this violence is not confined to an actual assault of the person, by beating, knocking down, or forcibly wresting from him on the contrary, whatever goes to intimidate or overawe, by the apprehension of personal violence, or by fear of life, with a view to compel the delivery of property equally falls within its limits. Alison, Pr. Cr. Law of Scotl. 228; 4 Binn. R. 379; 2 Russ. on Cr. 61; 1 Hale P. C. 553. When an article is merely snatched, as by a sudden pull, even though a momentary force be exerted, it is not such violence as to constitute a robbery. 2 East, P. C. 702; 2 Russ. Cr. 68; Dig. 4, 2, 2 and 3.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
References in periodicals archive ?
Horizontal violence and bullying has been extensively reported and documented in healthcare, with serious negative outcomes for registered nurses, their patients, and health care employers.
The line I greatly appreciated from the article involved recognition that horizontal violence, per the Joint Commission standards, greatly undermines a culture of safety.
Horizontal violence has previously been identified within perioperative care (Hamlin 2000), and may be attributed to or associated with patriarchal dominance and consequent feelings of oppression (Freire 1970).
* nurses AND violence, nurses AND abuse, nurses AND assault, nurses AND horizontal violence, nurses AND bully*, nurses AND harassment
Verbal abuse--a disruptive form of behavior involving verbal communication that is associated with horizontal violence and bullying.
In terms of descriptive empirical evidence, the study also assessed the prevalence of verbal abuse episodes levelled at nurses (participants) by doctors (vertical violence) and by other nurses (horizontal violence) in the sample that was studied.
Also, when the Ambon conflict was reflected and religious tensions surfaced in Yogyakarta by the stoning of Christian churches in late January 2000, it was taken as a signal of the wider national spread of horizontal violence and the government's lack of control.
This phenomenon is known as horizontal violence, "the curious behavior of members of oppressed groups who often lash out at their peers in response to oppression instead of attacking their oppressors." This paper explores the nature, origin, and effects of horizontal violence, including the dismissive, negative, demeaning, or hostile behavior of some women toward others who have assumed leadership roles in education.
Bullying behavior goes by other names, such as harassment, lateral violence, horizontal violence, and vertical violence.
She herself has struggled with the bullying and horizontal violence she sees as rampant in our health system, and has become increasingly disillusioned and saddened by what she sees.
A safe environment for nurses and patients: Halting horizontal violence. Journal of Nursing Regulation, 1(3), 9-14.
Dyess and Sherman (2009) have identified several new "themes" of the new graduate nurse's learning needs as confidence vs fear, communication deficits, horizontal violence issues, critical reasoning deficits (especially on complex units), professional isolation and receipt of contradictory information.

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