Still, the two modes, the scientistic and the dramatistic, about which Burke speaks, diverge at a certain point: the scientistic approach builds the edifice of language emphasizing propositions like /It is/, or /It is not/, while the dramatistic approach accentuates hortative
propositions like /You will/, or /You will not/ [do something] ("Thou shalt, or thou shalt not") (Burke 1966: 44).
The construction laz volgo shows double hortative
marking: the particle laz is a precise functional equivalent of Latvian lai, and the third person imperative morpheme -go is the etymological (and functional) equivalent of the Estonian third person imperative marker -gu/-ku.
The IMPERATIVE type is conventionally associated with orders; the HORTATIVE
type with exhortations; the ADMONITIVE type with warnings; and the SUPPLICATIVE type with requests for permission.
George Eliot, for example, recognized that Kingsley was limited by a "perpetual hortative
tendency": "unless he shakes off this par sonic habit.
Here the parallel structure strings out a series of hortative
verbs, ten of them through the first tercet, although the more or less independent clauses are no longer coterminous with individual lines or longer prosodic units.
Another case of metonymization is represented by the process whereby imperfective verb forms, such as presents, come to be used to express unrealized situations in main clauses, for example in weak obligation and hortative
contexts such as (2a) and (2b).
Although the legislation includes a hortative
declaration that any new federal tax system should be approved by Congress in its final form no later than July 4, 2001 (to permit a six-month transition to the new system), there is no assurance that the principles underlying a replacement system could be agreed upon, that the new system's contours could be defined, and that meaningful and comprehensive transition rules could be developed in time to meet that ambitious deadline.
He discusses yzyd "God," for iezi[delta] or izi[delta]; kwdh "Lord," for xu[delta]a, xu[delta]ah, or xu[delta]ah; and y, which he interprets as the hortative
particle e < Middle Persian ew.
We find this form as the imperative and after the hortative
let's or the infinitival to, as in (52).
For instance, in a scene where two persons who want to be unnoticed try to change their hiding place, one of the two persons might use an English hortative
Directive utterances, that is, imperatives and hortatives
, contain special imperative or hortative
verb suffixes that are inherently marked for either second or first person and are thus outside of the general conjunct/disjunct system.
With imperatives, as in correle above, the intensive le construction is a hortative
, where the speaker is inciting the hearer to action--in this case, "go on, run," or "get going with the running.