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Psychological characteristics of male and female bodybuilders: The iceberg profile. Journal of Sport Behavior, 6(3), 136-145.
For instance, compared to a group of under-performers, bobsledders and rowers who perceived that they had performed up to personal expectations, exhibited pre-performance mood profiles consistent with the iceberg profile (Hall & Terry, 1995; Terry, 1994).
The well-known iceberg profile, characterized by scores on the domain of the Profile of Mood States or POMS (McNair, Lorr & Droppleman, 1971), is thought to predict athletic performance (Morgan, 1974, 1985; Morgan & Pollock, 1977).
Athlete A reported mood scores that showed a classic iceberg profile, while Athlete B reported below average Confusion, Depression, and Anger with scores for Tension and Vigor on the 50th percentile.
Successful athletes have typically exhibited the "iceberg profile", a phrase coined by Morgan (1980) indicating a satisfactory mood state that is high in vigor while low in the other performance-compromising states.
For instance, many studies failed to use appropriate statistical methods in determining the presence of the iceberg profile on the POMS, reducing it to only a descriptive measure.