Identity

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IDENTITY, evidence. Sameness.
     2. It is frequently necessary to identify persons and things. In criminal prosecutions, and in actions for torts and on contracts, it is required to be proved that the defendants have in criminal actions, and for injuries, been guilty of the crime or injury charged; and in an action on a contract, that the defendant was a party to it. Sometimes, too, a party who has been absent, and who appears to claim an inheritance, must prove his identity and, not unfrequently, the body of a person which has been found dead must be identified: cases occur when the body is much disfigured, and, at other times, there is nothing left but the skeleton. Cases of considerable difficulty arise, in consequence of the omission to take particular notice; 2 Stark. Car. 239 Ryan's Med. Jur. 301; and in consequence of the great resemblance of two persons. 1 Hall's Am. Law Journ. 70; 1 Beck's Med. Jur. 509; 1 Paris, Med. Jur, 222; 3 Id. 143; Trail. Med. Jur. 33; Fodere, Med. Leg. ch. 2, tome 1, p. 78-139.
     3. In cases of larceny, trover, replevin, and the like, the things in dispute must always be identified. Vide 4 Bl. Com. 396.
     4. M. Briand, in his Manuel Complet de Medicine Legale, 4eme partie, ch. 1, gives rules for the discovery of particular marks, which an individual may have had, and also the true color of the hair, although it may have been artificially colored. He also gives some rules for the purpose of discovering, from the appearance of a skeleton, the sex, the age, and the height of the person when living, which he illustrates by various examples. See, generally, 6 C. & P 677; 1 C. & M. 730; 3 Tyr. 806; Shelf. on Mar. & Div. 226; 1 Hagg. Cons. R. 189; Best on Pres. Appx. case 4; Wills on Circums. Ev. 143, et seq.

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A key requirement of the cGMP regulation is to perform 100% identity testing of the ingredients used in the production of dietary supplements.
Effective with the company's merger with Xtrana, the company also develops nucleic acid-based tests for use in drug discovery, detection of environmental and food contaminants, forensics and identity testing, human and animal diseases, genetic predisposition to disease and other applications.
The site is being handled by the Bone Marrow Services group of its GeneScreen subsidiary, a leader in DNA identity testing.
The use of putative psychological markers, such as those for violent behaviors, in identity testing would be very controversial, says C.
It is useful to think of priority levels as using degrees of identity testing with increasing reliability.
"The identity testing by HPTLC was performed to show that their material is consistent with Withania somnifera root.
There is a particular focus on identity testing activities targeting this sector, with fraudsters looking to capitalise upon the low-friction approach taken by many merchants aimed at increasing online revenues and encouraging customer loyalty in a fiercely competitive market.
She cited the important role of FDA and federal regulation, including extensive good manufacturing practices (GMPs) that mandate 100% identity testing for raw materials and specifications for purity and strength, among other requirements.
NPAG provides analytical testing for active constituents, testing for contaminent or incidental constituents and analytical services for identity testing. Other services include method development and method validation with strict adherence to the quality management system in place at NPAG.
This Illumina and UNTHSC partnership will focus on projects, including a range of forensically relevant genetic markers for human identity testing, pharmacogenetics for molecular autopsy, microbial forensics, and additional markers and methods to generate investigative leads in criminal cases and matters of national security.
When applied to identity testing, the probability of a random match with this method is approximately 1 x [10.sup.-12] (15).
Some specific topics examined include polynomial identity testing for depth 3 circuits, constructing Ramsey graphs from Boolean function representations, learning monotone decision trees in polynomial time, and random measurement bases, quantum state distinction, and applications to the hidden subgroup problem.

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